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Astronomy 161
An Introduction to Solar System Astronomy
Prof. Scott Gaudi

Lecture 9: Eclipses of the Sun & Moon

Key Ideas:

Lunar Eclipses

Solar Eclipses

The Eclipse Year


Umbra and Penumbra

Because the Sun appears as a disk ~1/2° across, Sun shadows are fuzzy rather than sharp.

This means shadows cast by the Earth & Moon are two-part shadows:

Umbra: Inner core of total darkness
The disc of the Sun is completely blocked.
 
Penumbra: Outer, partial shadow
Sun's disc is only partly blocked, with a bit peeking over the edge.

Lunar Eclipses

Lunar Eclipses occur when the Moon passes through the shadow of the Earth.

They only occur during Full Moon when the Earth is between the Moon and the Sun.

The Earth's umbra is ~1.4 Million km long:

The Earth's umbra is not totally dark because of light scattered by the Earth's transparent atmosphere. This gives the fully eclipsed Moon a slightly ruddy appearance (think about how the Sun looks reddish at sunset or sunrise).


Three Types of Lunar Eclipses

Total Lunar Eclipse:

Partial Lunar Eclipse:

Penumbral Eclipse:

Because the Moon can be completely immersed in the Earth's umbra during a total lunar eclipse, these eclipses can be seen from the entire night-time hemisphere. This is in contrast to total solar eclipses as we'll see below.


Solar Eclipses

Solar Eclipses occur when the Earth passes through the shadow of the Moon.

Solar Eclipses only occur during New Moon, when the Moon is between the Earth and the Sun.

The Moon's umbra is only 380,000 km long:

Solar Eclipses can be seen only where the shadow passes overhead.


Types of Solar Eclipses

Total Solar Eclipse:

Partial Solar Eclipse:

Annular Eclipse:


Total Solar Eclipses

Total Solar Eclipses are localized and short: While we often sketch the penumbra as uniform, in reality the penumbra shades gradually from the completely dark umbra out towards the edges. The reason is simple: as you move outwards away from the edge of the umbra, you will see an increasing fraction of the Sun peeking out from behind the Moon.

Why are eclipses rare?

If the Moon's orbit were exactly aligned with the Ecliptic, we would see

But, this clearly does not happen. Why?

Eclipses only occur when the line of nodes and the Sun line up during Full Moon or New Moon.


Eclipse Year

The Line of Nodes align with the Sun every 346.6 days. This is called the "Eclipse Year".

But, it must be a Full or New Moon when the nodes line up to have an eclipse. This happens only very rarely.

From a given location on the Earth you see


Upcoming Eclipses

Next Total Lunar Eclipses:
2008 February 21 - visible from Ohio

Next Total Solar Eclipse:
2008 August 1, visible from Greenland, Arctic, Siberia, Mongolia and China

Next Total Solar Eclipse near Columbus:
2024 April 8, totality crosses north & west of Columbus.

The next Total Solar Eclipse visible from Columbus proper will be on 2099 Sept 14.
A great source of information on upcoming eclipses (and eclipses in general) is Fred Espenak's Eclipse Home Page at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.
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