Life in the Universe
Prof. Scott Gaudi
All of the written material and some of the graphics (static images and
animations) on these pages are copyrighted by either Prof. Scott Gaudi or
Prof. Richard Pogge unless otherwise noted, and may not be reproduced
without written permission.
Educational or non-profit organizations wishing to reproduce or provide
links to any part of these pages must contact Prof. Scott Gaudi
(firstname.lastname@example.org) in writing. Please see the Usage Guidelines below
These web pages are intended primarily for use by Ohio State University
students enrolled in Astronomy 141 during Spring Quarter 2007. Students
formally enrolled in this course are granted permission to make copies
of the online notes in unaltered form for exclusive personal use only,
provided that all copyright notices and citations of images and text
sources remain intact. "Personal Use", however, does not extend to
additional reproduction, alteration, distribution, or resale of these
notes in any form to anybody. Your use of these web pages implies that
you agree with and will respect these conditions of use.
All other interested persons who are not enrolled in this course at The
Ohio State University are welcome to browse these pages, provided that
they observe the following usage restrictions:
- Educators, educational organizations, or registered non-profit
organizations may link to these pages from their websites, provided they
contact the author, Prof. Scott Gaudi (gaudi.1 [at] osu.edu),
so that I have a record of who is using this material outside of The
Ohio State University.
- You may not reproduce, distribute, or resell any of the materials on
these pages in any form, nor may you charge others to gain access to
these pages. In particular, you are specifically prohibited from
including any of the written material or graphics, in whole or in part,
in course note or lecture note packages compiled with the intention of
reselling them to students enrolled in this or related courses at this
or other educational institutions. This includes providing copies of
these notes, in whole or in part, to electronic note-taking services.
- Citations of factual material in these pages should be to the
original sources. Please contact the author of these pages for
information on the correct citation of particular materials, or if you
see incorrect citations so that the author may correct these errors.
A Brief Note About Copyrights
The precise relationship between existing copyright laws and publically
accessible electronic documents on the Internet is a subject of
considerable discussion and debate. Copyrights are an essential
protection for teachers and students alike, as they play a fundamental
role in helping to preserve the integrity of our intellectual activities
(writing, images, etc.) by protecting our creative works from commercial
exploitation by others. I take the issue of copyrights very seriously
in the production of these web pages.
If you notice any inappropriately used or incorrectly cited text or
images, please contact me so that I can either seek the proper use
permissions or delete them from these pages (providing substitutions
Return to the
Astronomy 141 Main Page
- Text Sources
- I have made a good faith effort to be very careful about not
including copyrighted text (other than my own) in these pages, except
where I have sought specific permission from the original authors. I
would appreciate help correcting any erroneous citations to primary
sources you might spot in these pages.
- Images are essential to teaching astronomy, and present a wide range
of copyright issues in the context of the Internet. Since copyright law
with regards to electronic graphics is still being developed, I have
little guidance except common sense. As such, I use primarily public
domain images on these pages, taking care to correctly cite the original
sources, and have sought permission for other images (e.g., I have an
agreement with the Anglo-Australian Observatory for use of some of their
copyrighted images on these pages).
Some of the images and graphics displayed during my lectures are
copyrighted materials unavailable in the public domain. While use of
these images in lecture is permitted under the well-established
principle of "Fair Use", that same principle prohibits me from posting
these same images to the Web without the explicit permission of the
owner of their copyright. I am seeking permission from the original
sources to post some of the graphics on these pages, but not all persons
have granted that permission. For example, the publishers of the
textbook have provided me with electronic copies of most of the graphics
from the book which I may include in my lectures, but they do not grant
me permission to post them on the class webpages. This can be somewhat
inconvenient for the students, as a number of the images and graphics
used in lecture are not otherwise available online, but it is unavoidable.
- An exciting feature of electronic presentation is the ability to set
some images into motion. In astronomy we often deal with dynamic
phenomena: rotation, orbital motion, explosions, tidal encounters &
collisions, etc., and static pictures do not convey the concepts as
clearly as animations. We are beginning to create our own animations
for these classes, and are putting them onto the web pages for the
students to view (and play with) after class to help cement the ideas.
All OSU-created animations are copyrighted and subject to the same
restrictions noted above.
Some of the animations shown in class were created by others. In these
cases, I have put in links to the original webpages from which I got
them, or am seeking permission from the creators to make local copies
available to try to help with the download time for my students. In all
cases, these local copies are accompanied by links to the original
sources, and you should always consult with the creators to seek
permission to use them.
Updated: 2008 September 21