Dr. Sultana Nurun Nahar (SNN)
  • APS Fellow
  • CSWP Woman Physicist of the Month of APS
    Dept of Astronomy, 140 W. 18th Ave, The Ohio State U. Columbus, OH 43210
    Tel: (614)292-1888 (O), (614)299-9809(H), Fax: (614)292-2928
    Emails: nahar.1@osu.edu
    CV

    POSITION
    RESEARCH
    TEXT BOOK: AAS
    TEACHING, SUPERVISION, EVALUATION
    VISITING POSITIONS
    APS-FIP
    IAU
    EDUCATION
    PUBLICATIONS
    NORAD-ATOMIC-DATA
    GLOBAL STEM PROGRAM
    ELECTED POSITIONS
    FOUNDING SOCIETY MEMBER
    PROFESSIONAL MENTOR
    JOB HISTORY
    PRESENTATIONS, INTERVIEWS
    RESEARCH GRANTS
    REFEREE, EDITOR, REVIEWER
    SCIENTIFIC ORGANIZER
    PROFESSIONAL MEMBERSHIP
    JUDGE, - SESSION CHAIR


    POSITION

  • Research Professor, Spetember 2015 - present

  • Associate Director and Chief Liaison Officer,
    Obama-Singh 21st Century Knowledge Initiative Award Project: "THE STEM-FACULTY PROJECT: Training the Next Generation of STEM Faculty at Higher Education Institutions in India", 2013-2017
    (Research Associate 1993-2001; OSU-MPS University Postdoctoral Fellow 1990-1993)
  • Adjunct Professor, Department of Physics, 2017 -
    Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, UP 202002, India


    EDUCATION:

  • Ph.D. (Atomic Theory), 1987, Wayne State U., Detroit, Michigan
    - Dissertation: "Electron and positron scattering from atoms"
    - Thesis Advisor: Professor J.M. Wadehra
    - Congratulation
    - Wikipedia: In Science list of Wayne State University People

  • M.A. (Quantum Optics), 1982, Congratulation, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan
    Thesis: "Nematic Liquid Crystal and Optical Nonlinearity"

  • M.Sc, Theoretical Physics), 1979, University of Dhaka, Bangladesh
    Thesis: "Compton Scattering on Nucleons at Low Energies"
    First position in Dhaka University, DU Award (#13)
    (In limited DU alumni wikipedia list)

  • B.Sc.Hons. (Physics), 1977, University of Dhaka, Bangladesh
    First position in Dhaka University (Award #1) (the first female student to get the place)
    - Salekunnesa Award for the Best Female B.Sc.Hons. Student of Dhaka University


    RESEARCH GRANTS: 15

  • NASA: 7, DOE: 2, NSF: 2, OSU Diversity: 1, STSCI: 1, U.S. Department of State (Fulbright-Hays): 1, US-India Education Foundation: 1

  • U.S. Department of State: "Women in STEM Roadshow", comprised of nine workshops in Tier-1 and Tier-2 cities in New Delhi, Hyderabad and Kolkata consulate districts, PI: S.N. Nahar, S-IN650-17-GR-0034, $74,871.80, 9/30/2017 - 9/30/2018

  • HST-STSCI: ""Improving UV Continuous Opacities and Model Spectra for Cool Stars", PI: J. Valenti, Co-Is: N Piskunov, B Edvardsson, A Pradhan, S. Nahar, N Lewis, S Horst, J Moses, Cycle 23 AR, $70,000, 10/01/15 - 09/30/16

  • DOE: "Testing Stellar Interior Plasma Opacities at the Sandia Z", PI: Anil Pradhan, Co-PIs: Sultana Nahar, M. Pinsonneault, DOE Office of Fusion Sciences, 07/01/14-06/30/17

  • NSF: "Solving the Nebular Abundances Anomaly: New Features in Photoionization and Recombination", PI: S.N. Nahar, AST-1312441, 08/15/2013 - 07/31/2016

  • US India Education Foundation: "The STEM -Faculty Project: Training the Next Generation of STEM faculty at Higher Eduction Institutes in India", PI: A.K. Pradhan, W. Haider (Co-I: S.N. Nahar with 7), Obama-Singh 21st Century Knowledge Initiative Award, July 2013-June 2016

  • OSU: "Collaborative Project on Energy, Health, and Globalization with Egypt", S.N. Nahar, Diversity and Inclusion, April 2012

  • NSF: "Radiative Atomic Processes in Iron-Peak Elements For Non-LTE Astrophysical Models", PI: S.N. Nahar, AST-1109088, 9/1/11-08/31/2014

  • DOE: "Laboratory Tests of Stellar Interior Opacity Models", PI, J.E. Bailey, Sandia National Lab; Co-I/Consultants: A. Pradhan, M. Pinsonneault, C. Iglesias, R. Heeter, J. Abdallah, M. Sherrill, D. Arnett, C. Meakin, W. Eissner, S.N. Nahar, DE-FG52-09NA29580, 09/15/09-09/14/2012

  • NASA (APRA): ``Atomic Data for Multi-Wavelength Spectroscopy of Iron in Astrophysical Plasmas", PI: S.N. Nahar, Co-I: C.J. Zeippen, 07/01/06 - 06/30/08

  • NASA (ATP), "Theoretical X-Ray Atomic Astrophysics and Spectroscopy - The RmaX Network", 04/15/02 - 04/14/04 PI: A.K. Pradhan, Co-I: S.N. Nahar

  • NASA (Space Astrophysics and Research Analysis, SARA): ``Atomic Data for Multi-Wavelength Spectral Formation", PI: A.K. Pradhan, Co-I's: S.N. Nahar, T.A.A. Sigut, 01/01/02 - 12/31/04

  • NASA (Ultraviolet, Optical, Visible, \& Gravitational Astrophysics): ``Radiative and Collisional Atomic Data for UV and Optical Astronomy", PI: A.K. Pradhan, Co-I: S. N. Nahar, 10/01/98 - 09/30/01

  • NASA (Astrophysical Theory Program, ATP): ``Atomic Processes In X-ray Astrophysics", PI: A.K. Pradhan, Co-I: S.N. Nahar, T.W. Kallman, 05/01/99 - 04/30/02

  • NASA (ADP): ``Atomic Database For Astrophysics From The Iron Project", PI: A.K. Pradhan, Co-I's: S.N.Nahar, C. Mendoza, T.W. Kallman, C.J.Zeippen, 01/01/98 - 12/31/00

  • NASA (ADP): "A comprehensive opacities/atomic database for the analysis of astrophysical spectra and modeling", PI: A.K. Pradhan, Co-PI's: S.N.Nahar, D.Mihalas, I.Hubeny, T.Lanz, S.Voels, M. Van Steenberg and S.Heap, 06/1/94 - 05/31/97

  • OSC: 7000 RU, SUG meeting of OSC, December 5, 2015

  • Travel Grants: 13 (APS-4, Climate Change-UN, Steller Atomsphere-Germany, -Mexico, -Kentucky, ITAMP-Harvard, CfA, IAU GA, IAU-Symp, Electron-Ion Collsions-Atlanta, ICPEAC, OSU-ODI)


    PREVIOUS POSITIONS: LONG & SHORT-TERMS

  • Visiting Professor, under MOA between OSU & Cairo University, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt, October - November, 2016
    - Course advertisement in facebook

  • Visiting Professor (invitation from Vice Chancellor Professor Khurshid Ansari), Conducted workshop: "ATOMIC STRUCTURE AND TRANSITONS: THEORY & COMPUTATION USING SUPERSTRUCTURE PROGRAM", March 25, 2016 Physics Department, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India, March 23-27, 2016

  • Visiting Professor, Physics Department, Aligarh Muslim University under Obama-Singh STEM Edudation and Research Project, Aligarh, India, Februry - March 2016

  • Visiting Professor, Teaching, under MOA between OSU & Cairo University, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, March-April 2015

  • Visiting Professor, Teaching, Physics Department, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, Inida, Feb-March 2014

  • Visiting Faculty, Teaching, Physics Department, Delhi University, Delhi, Inida, Feb-March 2014

  • Visiting Professor, Teaching, under MOA between OSU & Cairo University, Physics Department, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt, Feb - March 2013

  • Research Scientist, 2003 - 2015, Astronomy, Ohio State U, Columbus, Ohio

  • Senior Research Associate, 1997 - 2003, Astronomy, Ohio State U, Columbus, Ohio

  • Research Associate, 1993 - 1997, Astronomy, Ohio State U, Columbus, Ohio

  • University Postdoctoral Fellow, Mathematical and Physical Scienencs, June 1990 - July 1993, Astronomy, Ohio State U, Columbus, Ohio

  • Postdoctoral Research Associate, Jan 1988 - May 1990, Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State U., Atlanta, Georgia Research: Photoionization cross sections and asymmetry parameter for angular distribution of atoms in Hartree-Fock approximation. Developed fortran codes for the atomic parameters. Electron-positron scattering from atoms.

  • Postdoctoral Research Associate, May 1987 - Dec 1987, Wayne State U., Detroit, Michigan {Research:} Relativistic calculations of electron and position scattering from atoms. Developed the fortran programs for the processes.

  • Graduate Research Assistant, AFOSR support, Wayne State University, 1986-1987 Research: Positronium formation and electron-positron scattering from atoms

  • Undergraduate modern physics course, a two-hour lecture course meeting twice a week, at Georgia State University, Fall, 1989

  • Graduate Teaching Assistant, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Wayne State University, Fall 1979-Summer 1984. Undergraduate introductory physics laboratories and quiz recitation sessions,


    SHORT TERM VISITOR AT INSTITUTIONS:

  • Visiting Professor, Physics Department, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, India, March 2016 Invitation letter

  • National Research Institute of Astrophysics and Geophysics (NRIAG), (Seminer, discussions at Helwan, Telescope on Kottamia etc), Egypt, April 2015. Invitation letter from President Prof. A.A. Mohamed. Astronomers, visit 74in Telescope on Kottamia mountains, dome in the back, also 14in telescope

  • King Saud University (seminars, workshop), Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, 2014
  • Dammam University (seminars), Dammam, Saudi Arabia, 2014
  • Taibah University (seminars), Madina, Saudi Arabia, 2014
  • Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Banglore, India, 2014
  • Jain University (research, higher education), Banglore, India, 2014
  • Visiting Scientist, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, October 2012
  • Aligarh Muslim University (seminars), Aligarh, India, 2011
  • United Arab Emirates University (seminars), Al Ain, UAE, 2011
  • NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (seminar, research), October 2010
  • Visiting ITAMP-Scientist, CFA, Harvard University, August, 2006
  • Visiting ITAMP-Scientist, CFA, Harvard University, August, 2005
  • Consultant, Observatoire de Paris, Meudon, June 28-July 5, 2005
  • Visiting NASA-Scientist and Presentation, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, October 2010
  • Physics Department, Stuttgart University (research), 2002


    ELECTED POSITIONS: 10

    10. Selection committee: John Wheatley Award, APS, 2015

    9. Leader, OSU Delegation, the 5th International Exhibition and Conference on Higher Education (IECHE), Saudi Arabia, April 15-18, 2014

    8. Selection committee: APS Fellows through FIP, 2012-2014

    7. Member, Review Panel of Research Associateship Programs of National Research Council, 2014

    6. Elected Member of Executive Committee, Forum of International Physics (FIP), 2012-2014, FIP Candidate page, News on Elected Member, FIP newsletter

    5. Co-Chair, the Atomic Data Working Group, IAU Commission 14, 2012-2015

    4. Advisor (2010-present) of Bangladesh Student Association (BSA), Ohio State University

    3. Coordinator (2 meetings at NASA, Germany), the Iron Project, 2001-2002

    2. President, International Society of Muslim Women in Science (ISMWS)

    1. Class Representative in B.Sc.Hons, Dhaka University

  • Class Representative, throughout Elementary and High Schools


    REFEREE OF JOURNALS: 34

    1. Arabian J. Chemistry
    2. Astronomy \& Astrophysics (A\&A),
    3. Astrophysical Journal (ApJ),
    4. Astrophysical Journal Letters (ApJL),
    5. Astrophysical Journal Supplements (ApJS),
    6. Astrophysics and Space Science (ASTR),
    7. Atomic Data Nuclear Data Tables (ADNDT),
    9. Atoms,
    9. Canadian Journal of Physics (CJP),
    10. Journal of Earth and Space Sciences,
    11. European Physics Journal D (EPJD),
    12. IEEE-Transactions on Plasma Science,
    13. Indian Journal of Physics (IJP),
    14. Intl J. Mass Spectrometry,
    15. Int Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
    16. Journal of Astrophyiscs and Astronomy D
    17. Journal of Electron Spectroscopy and Related Phenomena,
    18. Journal of Optical Society of America (JOSA),
    19. Journal of Optics and Laser Technology
    20. Journal of Physics B (JPB),
    21. Journal of Physics B Letter,
    22. Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy \& Radiative Transfer (JQSRT),
    23. Monthly Notices of Royal Astronomical Society (MNRAS),
    24. New Astronomy,
    25. New Journal of Physics (NJP),
    26. Ohio Journal of Science,
    27. Optics Letters
    28. Physical and Chemical News,
    29. Physica Scripta,
    30. Physical Review A (PRA),
    31. Physical Review Letters (PRL),
    32. PRA Rapid Communications,
    33. Radiation Physics and Chemistry,
    34. The Open Astronomy Journal (TOAJ)

  • Thank you letter, New Astronomy, 2012
  • "Elsevier Reviewer Recognition Certificate for JQSRT 2014
  • "Elsevier Reviewer Recognition Certificate for J. of Rad. Phys. Chem., 2016
  • "Elsevier Reviewer Recognition Certificate for J. Opt. Las. Tech., 2016

    REVIEWER/EVALUATOR OF PROPOSALS, UNIVERSITY PROMOTIONS:

    1. NASA,
    2. National Research Council,
    3. Army Research Lab,
    4. Ohio Supercomputer Center (OSC)
    5. APS Fellowships, Award
    6. Razzaq-Shamsun Physics Research prizes, Bangladesh
    7. Physics and Astronomy prizes, Al Azhar University, Egypt
    8. Tenure promotions: USA, Iraq

  • NRC-RAP reviews 2015, National Academy of Science, Irvine, California
    - Physics panel pic1, - pic2, - panel room Balboa, - Darwin bust in Beckman Hall, - with Marilyn in Balboa island

  • EDITOR:
    Journal of Taibah University for Science (JTUSCI, Elsevier, 2014)

    EDITOR OF PROCEEDINGS:

    "Atomic Data for X-ray Astronomy" (Editors: A.K. Pradhan, S.N. Nahar, P.L. Smith), Proceedings of IAU XXV JD 17 in "Highlights of Astronomy", Vol. 13, IAU 2003, Astronomical Society of the Pacific Conference Series (ASP Publisher, 2006, Edited by O. Engvold), p621


    SCIENTIFIC ORGANIZER OF NATIONAL & INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCES: 14

    14. Member of the Internaitonal Scientific Committee, the 6th International Conference of Science and Developments (ICSD VI), Gaza, Palestine, March 14-15, 2017

    13. Member of International Committee, Modern Trends in Physics Research 2016 (MTPR-016), Hurghada, Egypt, December 17-20, 2016

    12. Co-convener, joint international conference on nanotechnology, ALIGARH NANO-V and STEM Education and Research (STEMCON16) of the Ohio State University and Aligarh Muslim University, AIgarh, India, March 12-15, 2015

    11. Member of International Advisory Committee, Modern Trends in Physics Research 2014 (MTPR-014), Dec 19-23, 2014, Cairo, Egypt

    10. Convener, ALIGARH NANO-4 International, an International Conference on Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Aligarh Muslim University, India, March 8-10, 2014

    9. Worked with organizing committee for US speakers, 3rd international conference on Current Development of Atomic, Molecular, Optical and Nano Physics with Applications (CDAMOP), Delhi, India, 2011

    8. US coordinator, 3rd International Workshop on Ultra-Fast Laser Technology and Applications (UFLTA), Egypt, 2010

    7. Meeting Coordinator: "Nanospectroscopy Consortium" (Ohio State University, CfA-Harvard University, Thomas Jefferson University), Ohio State U, December 8, 2006

    6. Scientific Organizer: Joint international Iron Project Team and ITAMP workshop "High Accuracy Atomic Physics in Astronomy", Honoring M.J. Seaton,, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, Massachusetts, August 7-9, 2006 (In ITAMP (Harvard-CfA) newsletter, "High Accuracy Atomic Physics in Astronomy", ITAMP (Harvard-CfA) newsletter, Spring 2007)

    5. Data Panelist, JD 17 "Atomic Data for X-ray Astronomy", International Astronomical Union General Assembly, Sydney, Australia, July 13-26, 2003

    4. Scientific Organizer: The international symposium "Advances in Atomic Physics and Applications to Astrophysics", in honor of birthdays of Professor Micheal J. Seaton and Dr. Werner Eissner; University College London, London, U.K., December 13, 2002

    3. Scientific Organizer: The international workshop "Astrophysical Appilcations of the Iron Project/ Opacity Project data for NLTE Models"; University of Stuttgart, Stuttgart, Germany, July 19, 2002

    2. Scientific Organizer: The international workshop "Astrophysical and Laboratory Applications of the Iron Project and the Opacity Project"; Goddard - NASA, Maryland, USA, Feb 22, 2002

    1. Coordinator: The international scientific collaboration: "The Iron Project" (July 2001 - June 2002)

    Organized semi-annual international general IP meetings at
    (i) Goddard-NASA, USA, Feb 23-24, 2002,
    (ii) University of Stuttgart, Germany, July 20-21, 2002


    FOUNDING SOCIETY MEMBER: 4

  • Founder: "International Society of Muslim Women in Science", (April 2010) - for encouraging Muslim women to science profession, 130 members from 25 countries

  • Co-founder: "International Society of Arab Women in Science" (with Professor Lotfia El Nadi, Cairo University, Egypt, 2010), 7 Middle Eastern \& African counties, 239 members

  • Founding member and sponsor of STEM programs at various educational institutions in Bangladesh, Egypt, India

  • Founder: Abdur Razzaq and Shamsun Nahar Trust for Education in Bangladesh

  • Member of Planetarium Founders' Society, Ohio State University


    PROFESSIONAL MEMBERSHIPS: 12

  • The American Physical Society (APS) (unit:DAMOP)
  • International Astronomical Union (IAU)
  • Division of Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics (DAMOP) of APS (unit:DAMOP)
  • Forum on International Physics (FIP) of APS (unit:FIP)
  • Forum on Industrial \& Applied Physics (FIAP) of APS (unit:FIAP)
  • Honorary member of the Topical Society of Laser Sciences (TSLS)
  • The Egyptian Physical Society, certificate
  • Ohio Section of APS (unit:SOH)
  • Climate, Water, Carbon (CWC) of Ohio State University
  • Committee on the Status of Women in Physics of APS
  • Member of the Founders Society of new OSU Planetarium
  • International Network of Women Engineers and Scientists (INWES), 2009 - 2012


    PROFESSIONAL MENTOR:

  • Mentor in MentorNet, the E-Mentoring Network for Diversity in Engineering and Science (www.MentorNet.net) affiliated to Forum of International Physics (2007-present
    - Certificates of appreciation, 2010, 2009
  • Professional Mentor: Guiding, helping and encouraging Freshman Minority Students to Education under the Office of Minority Affairs and Retention Services, Ohio State U. (1999 - 2005) - Two certificates of appreciation, 2005, 2002


    JUDGE FOR RESEARCH PRESENTATIONS &

  • Contributed Research posters, international conference on Aligarh Nano V and STEM Education and Research, Aligarh Muslim University, India, 2016

  • Contributed Research Posters, Denman Undergraduate Research Forum, The Ohio State University, March 25, 2015

  • Judge (Contributed Research Posters), international conference on "Modern Trends in Physics Research", Egypt, Dec 15-19, 2014

  • Judge for Contributed Research Posters, 3rd Physics Graduate Research Day, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, April 5, 2012, program

  • Judge (Contributed Research Posters), international conference on "Modern Trends in Physics Research", Egypt, Dec 12-16, 2010

  • Judge (High School Research), the Governor's Award for Excellence in Information Science \& Technology Research, June 2010

  • Judge, State Science Day, Ohio, Certificate, Ohio Academy of Science (OAS), , 2010; Certificate, Ohio Academy of Science, letter 2011

  • Judge, District Science Day (District 7), 2010, 2011

    SCIENTIFIC SESSIONS CHAIR: 7

    7. Session 6: Astrophysics, Arab Conference on Astronomy and Geophysics the 5th Assembly (ACAG-5), NRIAG, Helwan, Egypt, October 17-20, 2016

    6. Session B8: Electron-Atom and -Molecule Collisions, Chair, 45th Annual Meeting of APS DAMOP, June 2–6, 2014; Madison, Wisconsin

    5. Aligarh Nano IV International 2014 conference, India, 2014

    4. 3rd intl conference of CDAMOP, India, 2011

    3. Intl conference on {\it Modern Trends in Physics Research}, Cairo Univ, Egypt, April 6-10, 2008

    2. DAMOP meeting of American Physical Society, Knoxville, Tennessee, May 16-20, 2006

    1. The international joint IP/ITAMP workshop "High Accuracy Atomic Physics in Astronomy", Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, Massachusetts, August 7-9, 2006


    NEWSBD, PBC 24

  • Press release of the Ohio Supercomputer Center with headline "X-ray researchers turn focus from black holes to cancer" on our nano-biomedical research (with mention of Iron Lady) (Jan 28, 2010
  • Group Research News on superhot atoms and blackholes, August 2006, OSU Research Webnews, and many other newspapers and websites, e.g.
    http://www.internationalreporter.com/news/read.php?id=2141
    http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2006/08/060823184744.htm
  • News on introducing teachers and students awards in Physics, Aligarh Muslim University, at about 10 Indian news media (India Education Diary, Ummid News, MVO news, Two Cirles News, Miligazetts, AMU News, Radiance Weekly viw etc.), Arts \& Science News at OSU
  • News on giving public Radha Govenday Chandra lecture in Bangladesh and receiving award certificate, Science news in Prothom Alo, July 29, 2011
  • News on many newspapers on the work with various educational institutions in Bangladesh, July-August, 2010
  • News after presentation of physics of astronomy applied to cancer treatment published over 50 news media all over the world and follow-up 8 interviews, June - August, 2011
  • News on recognition at the Modern Trends of Physics Research in Bengali newspapers NewYork Darpan, Thikana, and in OSU Arts and Sciences News, January, 2011
  • "Bangalee Biggani" (Bengali Scientist) - Article on research, and charity activities in Bangladesh, weekly newspaper "Sanglap", Nov 1, 2007, Dhaka, Bangladesh
  • Spring 2007 ITAMP Newsletter (by Institute of Theoretical Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics at Harvard), reporting "High Accuracy Atomic Physics in Astronomy workshop organized by A.K. Pradhan and S.N. Nahar at ITAMP-Harvard in August 2006"
  • S-TV interview on research in "Jana-Ajana", broadcasted in the US, May, 2006 and in Bangladesh, in June 2006
  • Guest of Honor of "World Women's Day" observation organized by the Progressive Forum in New York, March 18, 2006, New York attracted house full audience and was broadcasted by TV channels "Eye on Bangladesh", "S-TV" in the US and in Bangladesh and published by a number of bengali newspapers, "Thikana", "Akhon Somoi", "Desh Bangla", "Bangla" etc. The event was advertised ahead on the web and in newspapers
  • Published interview by Thikana editor on research and related issues, article spanning three pages, first week issue of weekly newspaper Thikana in April, 2006
  • Special Guest, Maniza Rahman Girls High School Reunion, Bangladesh, August 5th, 2005. News published in daily newspapers
  • N-TV interview on research, broadcasted in Bangladesh and in the USA, August 2005
  • Article on educational and charity activities in Bangladesh, Bengali newspaper Thikana, New York, 2005
  • "Meet the Iron Lady" for research on iron, in the first annual magazine of the Astronomy Department for outside distribution, Ohio State University, 2004
    --> Return to Sultana N. Nahar's home page

    Revised: January 2011